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1. THE NOTION OF TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR
1.1. Translation Theory: Object and Objectives
1.2. History of Transformational Grammar Development
1.3. The Main Types of Grammatical Transformations
2. GRAMMATICAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN TRANSLATION
2.1. Equivalent and Equivalent-Lacking Forms and Structures
In the mid-1990s to mid-2000s, much research in transformational grammar was inspired by Chomsky's Minimalist Program . The "Minimalist Program" aims at the further development of ideas involving economy of derivation and economy of representation, which had started to become significant in the early 1990s, but were still rather peripheral aspects of Transformational-generative grammar theory.
Economy of derivation is a principle stating that movements (i.e., transformations) only occur in order to match interpretable features with uninterpretable features. An example of an interpretable feature is the plural inflection on regular English nouns, e.g., dogs. The word dogs can only be used to refer to several dogs, not a single dog, and so this inflection contributes to meaning, making it interpretable. English verbs are inflected according to the number of their subject (e.g., "Dogs bite" vs "A dog bites"), but in most sentences this inflection just duplicates the information about number that the subject noun already has, and it is therefore uninterpretable.
1. Bolton W.F., A Living Language: The History and Structure of English. Random House, 1982
2. Chomsky N., Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1965.
3. Chomsky, Noam, The Minimalist Program. MIT Press, 1995
4. David Crystal, A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 4th ed. Blackwell, 1997
5. Frank Parker and Kathryn Riley, Linguistics for Non-Linguists. Allyn and Bacon, 1994
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